Port of Taiwan

Brief History of the Port - Kao Hsiung

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Kaohsiung Harbor is the largest international harbor in Taiwan, Republic of China; it is situated in the south-west coast of Taiwan, being the pivot point at the intersection between Taiwan
Strait and Bashi Strait. It boasts a spreading harbor area, expansive hinterland and mild climate.

Off the sea does it have a narrow and long sandbar, forming the natural breakwater. With such unparalleled geographical conditions, Kaohsiung Harbor is gifted to be a naturally  all-purpose harbor.

Taiwan Government is planning to upgrade Taiwan as the Asia-Pacific Regional Operating Center. Being part of the plan, Kaohsiung Harbor will be arranged to be the marine transportation hub. In line with the Government policies, the staff of this Harbor will spare no effort in improving the service quality and operations efficiency.

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Oceanic Information of Kaoshiung Harbor

Currents

I. According to the statistical data on current speed and direction which are detected from the station situated around Ho Mou Harbor, it is found that the maximal flow speed is 80cm/sec after calculating by a tachometer and a buoy measurer. In flood tide, the current is directed in the south-east; in ebb tide, the current is directed in the north-west. The flow speed in ebb tide is faster than that in flood tide.

II. During August 1969, six stations from First to second Entrance were selected to observe off-port tides after the Second Entrance of the Harbor was opened. The result was that the outward flow speed of the Harbor is 80cm/sec and the inward speed was approximately 50cm/sec, while the speed reaches over 80cm/sec at the gateway of the harbor with the current being directed randomly. Whenever a typhoon or north-west wind gets strong, tidal currents move more randomly which will cause the coast turbulence. Moreover, the flood tide may direct in the same or contrary way as the ebb tide does; that is to say, the tidal currents move diversely much.

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Tides

1.One self-note tidal level recorder is installed in each Tide Observatory Station at the 2nd Entrance, No. 10 Dock of the Harbor.

2.The following morning, daily tidal level record will be dispatched to concerned units.

3.All monthly, yearly and historical reports are collected and integrated into useful information.

4.In the Harbor, H.H.W. +1.62cm (set-in from L.L.W. zeroing point)

L.L.W. -0.03m, M.H.W. +1.10m

M.L.W. +0.42m, M.W.L. +0.75m

M.H.W.O.S.T. +1.22m

M.H.W.O.N.T. +1.02m

M.L.W.O.N.T. +0.46m

Spring rang 0.85m

Neap range 0.55m, 29.2J

Gravity: 1.023

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Waves

At usual times, we only observe the tidal level for the purpose of voyage berthing and some engineering works. However, for the need of harbor building, we began to observe waves and tides. The last time to observe waves was when the 2nd Entrance was pioneered, being from 1966 to 1975, the findings were as follows:

I.During the Typhoon:

1.As the various force and path of each typhoon, waves appear diversely in intensity and height. When a typhoon eye passed by the neighboring coast off Kaohsiung area or very close to Kaohsiung coast, waves would be higher; actually, waves were ever detected to be 5-5.5m effectively high and occur every 10-13 seconds.

2.At the offshore of Harbor, typhoons roaring from Bashi Strait to South Sea were ever detected in the 2nd Entrance to find that the largest wave was 4.2m high and occurred every 12 seconds.

3.On May 30, 1966 when Typhoon Judy invaded Taiwan, the highest wave was 7.00m high, waves were 5.24m and 24m as effective, occurred every 7.6 seconds and directed south 45 degrees west.

                           II.During the Monsoon:

1.During the winter monsoon, the wind comes mostly from the north-west with slower speed and moderate seas whose waves usually 1m high and occur every about 8 seconds.

2.During the summer monsoon, waves are greatly influenced by wind or are moderate seas from afar, waves of which are not high. Unless due to typhoon, waves are 1-2m high and last one to two days, while six to seven days are possible.

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Notes:

1.Generally, waves by the coast of the 2nd Entrance move in a paralleled direction as the wind, equaling to that between the west and the south and mostly perpendicular to the coastline.

2.Before officially locating the south-breakwater sinker of dia. 17m, a test sinker No. 13 was pinned down in the assigned location, depth of 4m under water on March 11, 1969; the test sinker was to detect on its resistance against waves. With a follow-up wave detector, the diffraction coefficient among wave points was found to exceed 1, i.e., the reflective wave height was two times the incident wave height.

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